How to set math fact fluency goals and objectives for IEPs

Setting IEP goals and short term objectives is a snap when you measure growth in fluency.  Not only are fluency growth goals easy to write and set, they are easy to measure and monitor.  You can adjust the intensity of the intervention ensuring the student can achieve the goals and objectives.   Finally, you’ll be able to demonstrate growth and improve student achievement.

Fluency with math facts ensures success in math

A student thinks through an equation by recalling their math facts.Math facts are a “tool skill” of mathematics.  Students need to be able to call math facts to mind instantly.  Students should not have to hesitate or stop to “figure out” single digit math facts.  This is a tool they need in order to do math assignments quickly and easily. Knowing math facts instantly enables students to concentrate better and learn math more easily than students who are distracted by figuring out facts.  Once students are fluent in math facts they can keep up successfully in regular math classes.


Test the student’s present level of performance (PLOP) on facts

It only takes a minute to have students take a timed test in an operation to see how well they know their facts. You want to know how many facts in that operation the student can answer in one minute.  Test first-grade students in addition and second-graders on subtraction. Starting in 3rd grade and up, multiplication has priority, so test and focus on multiplication facts for your IEP.  You can move on to other operations once multiplication facts are fluent.  Here is a link to a page with Rocket Math’s one-minute pre-tests in all four basic operations.  However, you can’t evaluate whether a given student is fluent until you know how fast they can write. Students who are fluent with facts can answer them about as fast as they can write.  But they cannot answer them any faster than they can write.

You must also test the student’s writing speed

You cannot set achievable goals of how many facts a student should answer in a minute without first knowing how fast they can write.  That sets the upper limit.  So test their writing speed by having them write a mix of one and two digit numbers for one minute.  See to the left, Rocket Math’s one-minute Writing Speed Test From the link you can print it out for free.  Once you know how fast your student can write you can evaluate their performance on the one-minute fluency tests.

Is math fact fluency an area of need?

Now that you know the student’s writing speed you can evaluate their present level of performance.  Rocket Math has a handy evaluation sheet you can use to determine if there’s a need.  Or you can do the math yourself.  If students answer math facts at a rate less than 75% of their writing speed, they are weak and math facts is an area of need. Putting math fact fluency on the IEP and working on it as a goal would be very helpful.  If the student can answer math facts at a rate that is 90% of their writing speed, they are strong and this is not an area of need.  Between 75 and 90% of their writing speed they are good, but could benefit from some more work.

Get a starting point on the progress monitoring measure

If you’re going to test every week with 1-minute timings and you have a bunch of those available, you already have a 1-minute timing starting point.  If you’re using the Rocket Math Worksheet Program as your intervention, it uses 2-minute timings to measure progress weekly, so you’ll want to use one of those for your starting point.  (You can’t just double the 1-minute score because students don’t usually keep up at the same rate for two minutes.)  So give one of the 2-minute timings, in the operation you’re going to focus on, to set a starting point.

Set the math fact fluency goal based on writing speed

Students who have successfully developed math fact fluency in an operation can write answers to math facts almost as fast as they can write. As fast as their fingers can carry them is the most you could expect.  You could set a goal at 80% of their writing speed. It would still be rigorous enough.  If they met that goal the student would be fluent in math facts.

You can do the math yourself from their writing speed test. The Rocket Math Worksheet Program has weekly progress monitoring 2-minute timings.  In that case, your student’s goal for the 2-minute timing is on the handy goal sheet ** that you put into each student’s folder.  You can see the student shown here filled in 24 boxes on the Writing Speed Test, so his or her goal for 2-minute timings would be 38 for the annual goal for the IEP.


Create a graph and draw an aimline from starting point to goal

Now the coolest thing about progress-monitoring a fluency goal is that it is easy to graphically see on a weekly basis if the student is on track to meet the goal.  You simply create a graph, with enough spots at the bottom for all the weeks in the year.  Next you put in the starting point performance in the first week of the graph (or whenever you tested).  Then put in your goal performance at the end of the year.  Then draw a line between those two points.  That line is called the aimline and is shown in the example at the top of this article.

The pictured student began at 29 problems in 2-minutes.  Their PLOP was 29 problems correct in 2 minutes.  The student had a writing speed of 40 problems in a minute.  Therefore 80% of that is 32 problems in a minute or 64 problems in two minutes by the end of the year.  The aimline is simply a straight line between those two.  You can see that the first couple of two-minute tests did not meet the aimline, but by the third test the student was right on track for meeting the goal by the end of the year.

Short term objectives (STOs) are set by the aimline

Once the aimline is drawn, the STOs are found by reading up from the date of the quarterly STO reporting date.  Wherever the aimline is on that date, that’s the STO.  In the example above the quarter 1 objective looks to be about 38 problems in two minutes.  The second quarter looks to be 45 problems in two minutes with the 3rd quarter at 53.  Very simple and easy to set and to read and report.  Since every student in Rocket Math should have a graph like this reporting to parents on a quarterly basis would be more more than showing them this graph.

What if they aren’t meeting the aimline?

In all the struggle with writing and evaluating IEPs many times we forget the purpose.  IEPs are designed to evaluate whether our intervention is adequate to meet the student’s needs.  So if the student is falling below the aimline or doesn’t make the STOs what are we supposed to do?  Wringing our hands or shaking our heads sadly at the IEP meeting at the end of the year is not what is supposed to happen.  Instead we are supposed to be using these goals as a way to determine if we need to intensify our intervention.

How do you intensify your intervention?

So if a student is not meeting the aimline when we monitor their progress we should re-double our efforts.  With Rocket Math that’s quite doable.  If the student is falling below the aimline for three weeks in a row, add another practice session each day.  The standard ten minutes a day for Rocket Math may not be enough for this student. So you need to arrange for them to get in another practice session each day.  Often a short trip to the Special Education room for a second quick session with the teacher or an aide will do the trick.  If two a day at school aren’t enough, maybe you can add one each evening at home.  Some students do need more practice to meet these goals.  The good news is that you can find out quickly with your graph and get going soon.

**The Goal Sheet was updated in 2021 to reflect the 80% expectation for IEP goals.  The update shows that students who can fill in 15 boxes in a minute can go ahead and do Rocket Math, while those who can only fill in 14 boxes are candidates for help with writing numerals in the Rocket Writing for Numerals Learning Track.